Memory


Memory Model

-  Use highest technology as metaphors of memory

-  Wax tablet

-  Telephone switchboard

-  Computer

-  Information processing model

-  Encoding

-  Storage

-  Retrieval

-  Process information


Types of Processing

-  Automatic

-  Information encoded

-  Space
-  Time
-  Frequency

-  Occurs with little or no effort

-  Without awareness

-  Occurs without interfering with other tasks

-  Stroop Task

-  Effortful

-  Rehearsal

-  Ebbinghaus
-  Nonsense syllables
-  Recall
-  Principle of learning
-  Amount remembered depends on time spent learning

-   Effortful processing aids encoding


Encoding

-  The form in which  information is stored in memory

-  Meaning

-  Encoding facilitated when meaning is attended to

-  Integrates new information with other information stored in LTM

-  Levels of Processing Theory

-  Memory in terms of encoding

-  Craik & Lockhart

-  Retention depends on the type of encoding that information undergoes during processing

-  Shallow
-  Physical features of the stimuli
-  Medium
-  Sound of the stimuli
-  Deep
-  Meaning of the stimuli

-  Orienting task

-  Encourages certain types of processing

-  Chunking

-  Organization

-  Short term memory (STM)

-  Contains information we are currently attending to
-  Capacity is typically between 5 and 9 items
-  Organization determines what an item is

-  Using information stored in LTM to organize and group information in STM into meaningful units

-  DeGroot

-  Experts versus novices
-  Replace chess pieces
-  Performance differences due to chunking ability


Memory Storage

-  Three storage bins

-  Sensory store

-  Short term memory

-  Long term memory


Short term memory

-  A limited capacity store

-  Capacity

-  5-9 items

-  Duration

-  Rehearsal

-  Need to prevent rehearsal to determine duration of STM

-  Brown-Peterson task

-  Description
-  Dependent variable
-  % correct over time
-  Information in STM endures for 15 - 30 seconds without rehearsal

-  Nature of stored information

-  Acoustic codes

-  Evidence
Acoustic confusion - substituting an item that is acoustically similar for a list item
-  Conrad

-  Visual codes

-  Evidence
-  Mental transformation tasks
-  Mental rotation

-  Semantic codes

-  Evidence
-  Release from PI
-  PI = proactive inhibition/interference
-  Old materials increasing forgetting of new materials
-  Brown-Peterson task
-  3 sets from same category
-  4th set from new category


Long Term Memory

-  Capacity

-  John Von Neuman

-  2.8 X 1020 (280 quintillion) bits

-  Storage capacity is virtually unlimited

-  Duration

-  Some information persists a lifetime

-  Inability to remember information is due to retrieval failure rather than forgetting

-  Nature of stored information

-  Unitary storage


-  Multiple Memory systems

-  Mediated by different areas of brain
-  Store different types of information
-  Different cognitive processes operate on that information

-  Semantic memory
-  Memory for facts and for meanings
-  General world knowledge
-  Isnít time dated
-  Episodic into semantic
-  Schemas
-  Type of semantic memory
-  Organized bodies of knowledge of commonly encountered people, places, and events
-  Contain knowledge about what is generally true
-  Comprehension
-  Allow us to fill in missing or unspecified details
-  Allow us to ignore the commonplace and attend to novelty
-  Brewer & Treyens (1981)

-  Episodic memory
- Personal experience and the context within which the experiences occurred
- Shared by only a few other individuals
-  Difficult to examine empirically
-  Flashbulb memory
-  Type of episodic memory
- Memory of a situation that is very arousing, surprising, or emotional
-  Usually more detailed than those for everyday events
-  Sometimes involve dramatic public events
-  Studied by researchers
-  Characteristics
-  High level of surprise
-  High level of emotional arousal or perceived importance.
- More likely to be rehearsed
-  Content
-  Duration
-  Accuracy

-  Declarative memory
-  Memory for factual information
-  Contains both episodic and semantic memory
-  Procedural memory
-  Memory for how to perform certain actions and sequences of actions
-  Amnesiacs

-  Implicit memory
-  When memory or previous experience affects performance on a task that does not require intentional remembering
-  Incidental, unintentional and unconscious remembering
-  Explicit memory
-  Any memory which involves intentional recollection of previous experiences
- Conscious, accessed directly
-  Best assessed through recall or recognition measures of memory
-  Implicit memory and amnesiacs
-  Memory tasks
-  Problem solving tasks
-  Physical tasks
-  Retain past and past experiences
-  Implicit memory tasks
-  Designed to show an effect of past experience without having to directly recall those experiences
-  Word fragment completion

Memory Retrieval

-  Tip of the Tongue (TOT)

-  A sensation we have when we are in a confident that we know the word we are searching for, yet we can not recall it

-  Brown & McNeill (1966)

-  Accuracy

-  Interference


-  Retrieval failure

-  Tulving & Pearlstone (1966)

-  Free recall
-  Cued recall

-  More information encoded than could be recalled without cues

-  Retrieval failure rather than forgetting


-  Encoding specificity

-  Describes which types of cues might be most effective in overcoming retrieval failure

-  Information is encoded into a richer memory representation

-  Includes any extra information about the item that was present during encoding

-  Predicts that associations formed at encoding will tend to be effective retrieval cues

-  Context effects

-  The phenomena where retrieval is better when the location at testing matches the location at learning
-  Godden & Baddeley (1975)
-  Scuba divers

-  State dependent memory

-  Better recall when physical state at retrieval matches that at encoding

-  Mood dependent memory

-  Tend to associate good and bad events with their associated moods
-  Moods can act as retrieval cues


Reconstructed memories

-  People add their own general knowledge to material they encounter

-  Remember this information as being presented with the original material

-  Recall can contain inferences or logical interpretations

 -  Frederick Bartlett

-  "War of the Ghosts"

-  Memory for meaningful material is not reproductive

-  Omissions
-  Normalization

-  Eyewitness testimony

-  Loftus & Palmer (1974)

-  Showed Ss a videotape of an automobile accident
-  Biasing information introduced during questioning
-  Information affected recall

-  Repressed memories

-  Arguments for repressed memories

-  Common for patients to repress traumatic incidents in their unconscious
-  Sexual abuse in childhood is far more widespread than most people realize
-  Recent upsurge in reports of repressed memories
-  Due to increased sensitivity to the issue

-  Arguments against repressed memories

-  Results from therapist suggestions
-  Hypnosis, dream interpretation and leading questions
-  Creates memories of abuse
-  Discredited cases
-  Recanted cases
-  Psychological research
-  Imagery
-  Repetition
-  Semantic associates