Practice Test #4

Potential Multiple Choice Questions

1.) When you attempt to recall the name of a high school classmate by imagining yourself back in the English class with her, you are making use of:
a) dual coding
b) encoding specificity
c) schemas for high school to aid in recall
d) mnemonics

2) When you violate the encoding specificity principle, you are likely to experience an inability to:
a) form a visual code for information
b) form a semantic code for information
c) retrieve information from memory
d) forget information you have stored in LTM

3) Which of the following is an implicit memory test?
a) word fragment completion
b) recall
c) homophone spelling
d) recognition
e) both a and c
f) both b and d

The memory system that contains the memory for how to type on a typewriter or drive an automobile is the ____________ memory system.
a) declarative
b) procedural
c) explicit
d) implicit

4) Which of the following is NOT an existing explanation of childhood amnesia?
a) biological maturation of the hippocampus
b) repression of sexual and aggressive impulses
c) schemas and categories
d) passage of time
e) all of the above are explanations of childhood amnesia

5) Which type of memory is reasonably unaffected by amnesia?
a. explicit memory
b. implicit memory
c. episodic memory
d. generative memory

6) The work of researchers like Bartlett and Loftus on errors in memory suggests that memory is best viewed as:
a) a tape recording
b) storage on a computer disc
c) a literal record of events
d) a reconstruction of events or materials

7) Which language unit is at the bottom of the language hierarchy?
a) phonemes
b) phrases
c) morphemes
d) words

8) The word "bath" consists of how many phonemes?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4

9) ____________ refers to the language spoken to children. Its characteristics include the use of simple vocabulary and syntax, varying intonation, and exaggerated facial expressions.
a) Ostensive definition
b) Parentese
c) Telegraphic speech
d) Baby talk

10) After the first word is spoken:
a) vocabulary immediately grows at an extremely rapid pace
b) further increases in vocabulary occur very slowly and steadily
c) vocabulary growth is slow for several months, and then speeds up dramatically
d) no further vocabulary growth takes place until around 18 months

11) What is possible for language learning apes but not for apes that have not been taught a symbol system?
a) Perceptual analogies
b) Functional analogies
c) The ability to use  problem solving  heuristics
d) The ability to use linguistic determinism

Potential Short Answer Questions

  1. Provide an example (not a definition) of environmental context effects.
  2. Why do psychologists need special tests to examine implicit memory?
  3. How can a schema facilitate memory?  How can a schema hurt memory?
  4. What information did Loftus's "Lost In the Mall" experiment give us concerning the debate about recovered repressed memories?
  5. What is the "misinformation effect" and why is it important for us to understand it?
  6. Two of the characteristics of language is that language is both hierarchically and regularly structured.  What does this mean?
  7. Name four types of speech errors. Provide an example of one of these types of errors using the sentence "Taylor studied all night in order to pass her finals on Monday." Be sure you identify the type of error you are demonstrating.
  8. Provide two facts that support a Nativist theory of language acquisition.
  9. What are two potential explanations for Kanzi's remarkable ability to acquire language?
  10. What is the difference between the strong and weak Whorfian hypotheses?

If you have any questions or would like to know if you answered a question correctly, please feel free to send me an email.